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This book describes the painful transition of North
Sumatra from a number of independent states to a part of
Netherlands India (present day Indonesia).
It is seen not as a simple conflict of Netherlands
imperialism and Indonesian parochialism, but as a
three-sided contest in which the independent commercial
interest of the Straits Settlements played an integral role.
Aceh and Oostkust van Sumatra were the last to resist
Dutch influence because they were almost exclusively the
commercial preserve of Britain. It was not until the end of
the century that the Netherlands overcame this difficulty
and established her claim over the whole area, giving way
to the demands of British commerce in the East Coast but
ignoring them in the case of Aceh.


  1. The Contest for the East Coast of Sumatra 1858-1865
  2. The Sumatra Treaty of 1871
  3. War and Blockade 1870-1874
  4. Acehnese Diplomacy 1873
  5. Hopes of Peace 1874-1878
  6. Civil Government 1878-1883
  7. The Nisero Question 1883-1885
  8. The End of the Acehnese Nation 1885-1898

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